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Asia: Biggest Exporter of Processed Chicken



Asia is the region that exports the most processed chicken products, according to poultry industry analyst, Terry Evans.

Global trade in fresh/frozen chicken meat escalated rapidly between 2000 and 2011 to reach 12.5 million tonnes (Table 1) although this likely exaggerates the true picture since much of the exports from Hong Kong will be re-exports from Brazil and the USA, already accounted for in the figures for the Americas.


 

Table 1. World trade in fresh/frozen and prepared/processed chicken meat ('000 tonnes)

Country

2000

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

World trade in fresh/frozen chicken meat ('000 tonnes):

Exports:

Africa

9.5

4.8

3.0

6.5

9.5

46.2

61.5

56.2

Americas

3,627.4

5,516.0

5,445.3

6,366.4

7,311.6

7,234.9

7,252.7

7,530.4

Asia

1,432.2

420.6

482.9

639.1

765.8

876.2

1,187.7

1,373.1

Europe

1,805.1

2,137.3

2,157.6

2,302.6

2,344.7

2,592.1

3,115.7

3,477.8

Oceania

14.3

21.8

20.7

28.2

31.0

33.3

29.2

32.8

World

6,888.4

8,100.6

8,109.5

9,342.9

10,462.6

10,782.7

11,646.8

12,470.2

Imports:

Africa

259.0

512.9

612.3

673.6

717.8

861.2

1,065.5

1,254.4

Americas

556.0

910.5

1,033.4

1,132.3

1,373.7

1,380.3

1,416.6

1,509.8

Asia

3,276.7

2,767.2

2,976.2

3,654.0

4,274.9

4,670.9

5,021.5

5,780.0

Europe

1,811.2

3,223.6

3,094.2

3,171.0

3,374.2

3,095.0

2,879.7

2,790.3

Oceania

26.4

35.5

32.4

35.6

37.9

42.6

47.0

57.0

World

5,929.3

7,449.8

7,748.4

8,666.5

9,778.5

10,050.0

10,430.4

11,391.5

World trade in prepared/processed chicken meat:

Exports:

Africa

1.8

2.1

2.7

3.3

1.4

1.0

0.8

0.7

Americas

92.9

270.2

335.7

381.9

427.1

418.5

427.6

424.8

Asia

212.4

515.8

554.0

606.5

599.3

603.0

700.8

814.6

Europe

260.8

432.7

453.9

551.9

635.0

680.3

694.8

746.3

Oceania

2.2

1.8

1.1

0.6

1.0

1.8

2.9

3.4

World

570.1

1,222.6

1,347.3

1,544.2

1,663.8

1,704.5

1,827.0

1,989.7

Imports:

Africa

1.9

7.0

6.8

8.7

8.9

7.3

7.7

10.7

Americas

67.8

90.6

103.2

119.4

127.4

122.4

137.0

154.8

Asia

186.7

389.6

423.9

448.3

412.6

429.4

538.2

648.9

Europe

304.3

677.6

717.8

804.1

932.2

948.0

1,009.2

1,075.0

Oceania

1.3

2.0

2.7

3.2

4.1

5.4

8.9

10.0

World

561.8

1,166.8

1,254.4

1,383.6

1,485.2

1,512.4

1,701.0

1,899.4

Source: FAO

To get the complete export picture, however, account needs to be taken of the trade in prepared/processed chicken meat. The latter has increased as a result of some importing countries imposing bans on shipments of fresh/frozen products from countries that had been hit by avian influenza. As a result, global exports of prepared chicken products have escalated from less than 600,000 tonnes in 2000 to close on two million tonnes in 2011 (bottom half of Table 5). This is equivalent to around 2.9 million tonnes eviscerated weight, making a world total when added to the fresh/frozen figure in the top half of the table, of around 15.5 million tonnes.

Asia is the leading regional exporter of prepared chicken products, shipping more than 800,000 tonnes in 2011, while Europe is the biggest buyer, purchasing more than one million tonnes in that year.

It is apparent from Table 1 that the quantities of frozen and processed chicken exported and imported in a year do not balance. There are many reasons for this, including:

  • Some countries provide data on a general rather than specific product basis.

  • Data may be presented on a financial or market year rather than a calendar year.

  • There is a time lag between product leaving a country in say December and arriving at its destination in say January of the following year.

  • There can be a misclassification of a product between the exporter and importer.

  • There can be place-of-origin/final destination inconsistencies. For example country (A) may report that the final destination is country C, but the goods actually reach C via another country (B). As a result country C may report the place of origin of the goods was country B.

  • Goods can be lost during transport, while occasionally differences can occur due to a typing or calculation error, and 

  • In some instances, exports may not be declared to circumvent an embargo or avoid tax payments.

Although the quantities of fresh/frozen chicken exported from Asia have risen in recent years, the total in 2011 was no higher than in 2000. It is on the import side of the trade statistics that Asia features strongly as it is easily the most important region acquiring some 5.8 million tonnes in 2011 compared with 3.3 million tonnes in 2000 (Table 1 and Figure 1).

 

Figure 1. Imports of fresh/frozen chicken meat into Asia are close to six million tonnes a year ('000 tonnes)

 

Chicken Meat Imports by Asian Countries

While Hong Kong SAR is the largest importer of fresh/frozen chicken meat in Asia - taking almost 1.2 million tonnes in 2011 (Table 2), more than 750,000 tonnes were re-exported, of which, some 625,000 tonnes went to Viet Nam. Of Hong Kong’s imports, some 528,000 tonnes were purchased from the US and 324,000 tonnes from Brazil.

Table 2. Imports of fresh/frozen chicken meat into Asia (tonnes)

Country

2000

2005

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Afghanistan

25

23,192

11,342

32,316

23,056

38,591

51,004

Armenia

13,780

12,878

26,155

36,044

27,234

35,475

37,257

Azerbaijan

13,100

4,268

8,040

12,094

11,393

12,776

15,047

Bahrain

18,182

28,399

24,671

28,351

28,545

36,148

35,307

Bangladesh

0

52

22

1

0

0

0

Bhutan

20

0

0

145

163

384

255

Brunei Darussalam

920

214

241

175

721

447

877

Cambodia

71

2

1

228

418

178

332

China, mainland

7,899,742

370,418

773,300

787,196

722,242

515,536

385,498

China, Hong Kong SAR

993,778

455,394

537,860

653,408

715,341

1,011,178

1,176,978

China, Macao SAR

4,883

7,200

10,031

11,261

11,023

11,451

12,159

China, Taiwan

12,250

79,944

102,286

182,769

260,077

110,314

108,039

Cyprus

35

1,796

3,403

4,583

4,742

5,743

5,958

Georgia

16,386

16,218

26,588

36,012

38,254

39,558

43,963

India

0

0

23

0

0

0

0

Indonesia

14,017

3,817

4,735

5,294

2,687

125

9

Iran Isl. Rep.

22,656

0

25,067

25,484

25,484

29,719

64,569

Iraq

0

30,887

126,188

174,435

319,700

262,543

371,978

Japan

568,272

419,119

351,779

426,092

331,091

420,253

471,841

Jordan

363

11,911

24,283

41,697

39,363

46,953

47,117

Kazakhstan

19,885

108,656

146,312

131,748

108,120

100,000

156,756

Korea Rep.

66,082

46,520

44,875

57,881

61,782

92,881

116,849

Kuwait

57,972

161,855

143,416

191,942

220,729

184,506

159,397

Kyrgyzstan

1,970

11,812

22,287

40,325

18,901

86,804

72,825

Lao Peo. Dem. Rep.

8

7

10

0

0

0

0

Lebanon

3

380

194

2,016

6,392

8,829

3,719

Malaysia

29,876

17,133

32,582

31,705

27,783

36,097

39,822

Maldives

1,200

3,866

5,203

4,073

4,565

6,175

6,847

Mongolia

18

438

1,072

1,817

1,498

4,479

5,210

Myanmar

5

0

79

33

2,259

3,279

558

Nepal

0

50

4

1

0

196

313

Occ. Palestinian Terr.

3,958

9,000

5,300

8,200

9,400

11,000

8,400

Oman

24,566

51,927

57,540

75,500

134,911

74,126

90,060

Pakistan

0

0

13

6

0

5

6

Philippines

17,519

26,288

38,355

43,758

61,463

98,005

111,855

Qatar

23,905

25,534

33,446

44,423

67,881

51,992

74,720

Saudi Arabia

276,467

450,842

438,810

454,234

554,709

645,012

737,263

Singapore

83,887

91,228

103,213

104,089

99,029

104,665

111,714

Sri Lanka

1,321

1,580

3,377

1,940

844

841

1,891

Syrian Arab Rep.

0

127

2,076

1,079

20

2,845

8,581

Tajikstan

415

9,616

19,975

24,585

24,066

235,568

23,773

Thailand

22

11

16

23

24

310

1,162

Timor-Leste

4,100

4,500

4,500

4,500

4,500

4,500

4,617

Turkey

0

143

58

637

1,142

446

539

Turkmenistan

4,700

1,317

325

6,683

5,650

2,000

588

United Arab Emirates

110,900

170,336

240,243

274,446

311,669

285,569

319,366

Uzbekistan

9,167

6,475

3,349

3,638

3,222

4,758

11,089

Viet Nam

50

5,373

156,198

235,209

269,783

506,971

802,233

Yemen

60,196

101,441

95,155

72,862

109,059

104,280

81,683

ASIA

3,276,672

2,767,164

3,653,998

4,274,938

4,670,935

5,021,511

5,780,024

Source: FAO

 

Second largest importer in the region in 2011 was Viet Nam taking more than 800,000 tonnes.

Third in this import league table was Saudi Arabia buying nearly 740,000 tonnes of which 574,000 tonnes were supplied by Brazil and 146,000 tonnes by France. By 2023, it is forecast that Saudi Arabia will import more than one million tonnes a year.

Imports of fresh/frozen chicken to Japan are significant, amounting to 472,000 tonnes in 2011 of which 413,000 tonnes came from Brazil. However, in addition, Japan purchased some 428,000 tonnes of prepared chicken products, of which 220,000 tonnes came from China and 204,000 tonnes from Thailand. So, her total imports will have amounted to more than one million tonnes on a ready-to-cook basis. The current view is that this picture will change little in the future.

FAO data shows that imports of fresh/frozen chicken into Iraq escalated from around 31,000 tonnes in 2005 to 372,000 tonnes in 2011 (Table 2).

As mentioned in previous reports, production and trade data can vary according to source although in some cases the data are not directly comparable. USDA data, which includes prepared chicken, puts the 2011 figure at 598,000 tonnes with an estimate for 2014 of 730,000 tonnes (Table 3 and Figure 2). The figures for Hong Kong in this table have discounted re-exports from this country.

Table 3. Leading broiler meat importers in Asia ('000 tonnes)

 

2000

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014F

Japan

721

748

716

696

737

645

789

895

877

854

865

Saudi Arabia

347

485

423

470

510

605

652

745

750

820

860

Iraq

21

139

124

186

227

397

522

598

612

673

730

Hong Kong

168

222

243

215

236

253

295

410

300

272

255

China

588

219

343

482

399

401

286

238

254

244

235

United Arab Emirates

112

167

182

238

240

240

195

213

223

218

214

Total of above

1,957

1,980

2,031

2,287

2,349

2,541

2,739

3,099

3,016

3,081

3,159

Prepared meat is included but chicken paws are not.
F = forecast
Source: USDA

 

 

Figure 2. Leading broiler meat importers in Asia ('000 tonnes)

  

The United Arab Emirates is also an important player with, according to the FAO, receipts amounting to nearly 320,000 tonnes in 2011, some 213,000 tonnes of which were bought from Brazil. More recent figures from a USDA GAIN report indicate that UAE’s imports may have amounted to 370,000 tonnes in 2013 with Brazil supplying 245,000 tonnes.

It is clear from Table 3 and Figure 2 that the expansion in trade to this region is coming from increased purchases by Saudi Arabia and Iraq. Imports into Saudi Arabia have increased almost annually and, according to this USDA data, will likely reach a record 860,000 tonnes in 2014.

Clearly China’s imports are in decline and the USDA figures indicate that this trend has continued into 2014. However, the Chinese government has recently approved five Brazilian plants for exports.

Chicken Meat Exports from Asian Countries

Regarding exports of fresh/frozen chicken meat, until recently Thailand has been the key player but sales slumped after an outbreak of avian influenza which resulted in importing countries imposing a ban on this trade. As a result, Thailand switched to exporting processed chicken. So, although exports of frozen product have increased in recent years, the total in 2011 amounted to only 51,000 tonnes.

Earlier in 2014, however, Japan decided to re-open its market to imports of Thai frozen uncooked chicken, which will likely boost its sales in this sector.

In sharp contrast, exports of Thai’s processed items have increased four-fold to reach 441,000 tonnes in 2011 as against 101,000 tonnes in 2000.

In 2011, Japan was the main buyer of these products, taking 204,000 tonnes followed by the United Kingdom with 135,000 tonnes.

It is anticipated that Thailand’s total chicken meat exports will continue to expand to exceed 900,000 tonnes by the 2020s.

Table 4. Exports of fresh/frozen chicken meat from Asia (tonnes)

Country

2000

2005

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Azerbaijan

0

0

100

28

0

322

121

Bahrain

0

482

1,638

282

992

1,037

355

Brunei Darussalam

17

0

0

0

0

0

0

China, mainland

372,678

127,630

125,281

126,199

131,642

164,698

168,243

China, Hong Kong SAR

775,005

167,844

329,293

388,993

461,161

695,393

761,453

China, Macao SAR

33

15

20

13

20

0

22

China, Taiwan

1,004

880

1,064

509

2,447

3,525

3,413

Cyprus

283

68

611

962

958

1,305

1,019

Georgia

471

795

906

264

172

712

786

India

84

476

576

1,000

839

2,234

8,767

Indonesia

744

0

82

80

0

78

17

Iran Isl. Rep.

7,211

15,150

22,815

24,679

399

25,484

27,246

Israel

29

0

5,998

1,536

2,316

1,055

367

Japan

3,339

1,926

5,781

6,927

8,699

10,704

4,206

Jordan

0

1,909

2,618

20,000

21,802

19,231

16,472

Kazakhstan

54

149

2,933

2,498

52

52

10

Korea Rep.

1,381

2,121

4,691

8,056

10,955

20,197

22,779

Kuwait

1,178

28

24

24

765

172

457

Lebanon

201

520

731

679

937

1,264

1,864

Malaysia

3,023

291

691

2,773

4,333

7,279

7,740

Occ. Palestinian Terr.

50

130

220

350

350

350

350

Oman

100

7,066

4,740

9,386

31,262

12,174

11,800

Pakistan

0

3

0

1

0

501

1,718

Philippines

7

3,861

3,585

3,267

4,529

5,505

9,900

Qatar

12

248

119

1,060

999

999

999

Saudi Arabia

17,220

17,371

17,951

9,875

19,030

8,336

10,972

Singapore

3,284

11,439

14,499

8,846

7,162

8,798

10,267

Sri Lanka

51

4

21

206

584

2,259

1,812

Syrian Arab Rep.

0

1

850

26,813

8,779

6,673

548

Thailand

240,905

4,547

19,883

23,323

25,227

33,275

51,245

Turkey

3,659

44,317

50,832

78,519

114,166

138,395

234,148

United Arab Emirates

130

11,317

20,360

18,567

15,528

15,283

13,883

Viet Nam

0

0

24

24

24

292

103

Yemen

0

1

183

78

105

105

31

ASIA

1,432,153

420,589

639,120

765,817

876,234

1,187,687

1,373,113

Source: FAO

As is evident from Tables 4 and 5 and Figure 3, the most dramatic movement in the export market in Asia for fresh/frozen chicken meat has been the emergence of Turkey as a key seller. This country’s exports have rocketed from virtually nil back in 2000 to an estimated 480,000 tonnes in 2014.

Table 5. Leading exporters of broiler meat in Asia ('000 tonnes)

Country

2000

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014F

Thailand

310

240

261

296

383

379

432

467

538

504

580

China

464

332

322

358

285

291

379

423

411

420

430

Turkey

2

30

23

26

42

86

110

206

285

362

480

Total of above

776

602

606

680

710

756

921

1,096

1,234

1,286

1,490

F = forecast
Source: USDA

In 2011, the biggest customer was Iraq with 119,000 tonnes, while Viet Nam bought 16,400 tonnes out of the total in that year of 234,000 tonnes.

With the decline in Turkish domestic consumption, exporters are looking to increased exports particularly to Saudi Arabia with an initial target of 100,000 tonnes. Sales to Japan and China are also under consideration.

 

 

Figure 3. Leading broiler exporters in Asia ('000 tonnes)

 

 


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