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Nutrient Requirements of Chickens and Turkeys



 

Tables from Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, 8th revised edition, 1984, National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, DC 20418.
Conversion chart: 454 grams/lb; 1,000 grams/kilogram; 2.2 lbs./kilogram
Table 1. Body weights and feed requirements of broilers. * (Table is split into two sections.)

Weekly feed consumption (g)

Body Weights (g)

Age

(weeks)

F

M

F

M

110

120

120

130

1

240

260

300

320

2

355

390

515

560

3

355

535

790

860

4

645

740

1,110

1,250

5

800

980

1,430

1,690

6

910

1,095

1,745

2,100

7

970

1,210

2,060

2,520

8

1,010

1,320

2,350

2,925

9


* Typical for broilers fed well-balanced diets containing 3,200 ME kcal/kg

Table 1. Body weights and feed requirements of broilers. * (Continued.)

Consumption

(ME kcal/bird)

Cumulative energy consumption

 (ME kcal/bird)

Weekly energy

Cumulative feed

consumption (g)

Age

(weeks)

F

M

F

M

F

M

350

385

350

385

110

120

1

1,120

1,215

770

830

350

380

2

2,255

2,465

1,135

1,250

705

770

3

3,855

4,175

1,600

1,710

1,205

1,305

4

5,920

6,545

2,065

2,370

1,850

2,045

5

8,480

9,680

2,560

3,135

2,650

3,025

6

11,390

13,185

2,910

3,505

3,560

4,120

7

14,495

17,055

3,105

3,870

4,530

5,330

8

17,725

21,280

3,230

4,225

5,540

6,650

9


* Typical for broilers fed well-balanced diets containing 3,200 ME kcal/kg

Conversion chart: 454 grams/lb; 1,000 grams/kilogram; 2.2 lbs./kilogram

Table 2. Nutrient requirements of leghorn-type chickens as percentages or as milligrams or units per kilogram of diet. (Table is split into two sections.)

Growing 14-20

weeks

Growing 6-14

weeks

Growing 0-6

weeks

Energy base

2,900

2,900

2,900

Kcal ME/kg diet *

12

15

18

Protein (%)

0.67

0.83

1.00

Arginine (%)

0.47

0.58

0.70

Glycine and serin  (%)

0.17

0.22

0.26

Histidine  (%)

0.40

0.50

0.60

Isoleucine  (%)

0.67

0.83

1.00

Leucine  (%)

0.45

0.60

0.85

Lysine  (%)

0.40

0.50

0.60

Methionine + cystine  (%)

0.20

0.25

0.30

Methionine  (%)

0.67

0.83

1.00

Phenylalanine + tyrosine  (%)

0.36

0.45

0.54

Phenylalanine  (%)

0.37

0.57

0.68

Threonine  (%)

0.11

0.14

0.17

Tryptophan  (%)

0.41

0.52

0.62

Valine  (%)

1.00

1.00

1.00

Linoleic acid  (%)

0.60

0.70

0.80

Calcium  (%)

0.30

0.35

0.40

Phosphorus, available  (%)

0.25

0.30

0.40

Potassium  (%)

0.15

0.15

0.15

Sodium  (%)

0.12

0.12

0.15

Chlorine  (%)

400

500

600

Magnesium  (mg)

30

30

60

Manganese  (mg)

35

35

40

Zinc  (mg)

60

60

80

Iron  (mg)

6

6

8

Copper  (mg)

0.35

0.35

0.35

Iodine  (mg)

0.10

0.10

0.15

Selenium  (mg)

1,500

1,500

1,500

Vitamin A  (IU)

200

200

200

Vitamin D  (ICU)

5

5

10

Vitamin E  (IU)

0.50

0.50

0.50

Vitamine K  (mg)

1.80

1.80

3.60

Riboflavin  (mg)

10.0

10.0

10.0

Pantothenic acid  (mg)

11.0

11.0

27.0

Niacin  (mg)

0.003

0.003

0.009

Vitamin B12  (mg)

500

900

1,300

Choline  (mg)

0.10

0.10

0.15

Biotin  (mg)

0.25

0.25

0.55

Folacin  (mg)

1.3

1.3

1.8

Thiamin  (mg)

3.0

3.0

3.0

Pyridoxine  (mg)

 

* These are typical dietary energy concentrations.

Table 2. Nutrient requirements of leghorn-type chickens as percentages or as milligrams or units per kilogram of diet. (Continued.)
                                          Laying, daily
                                          intake per

Breeding

hen (mg) ** 

Laying

Energy base

2,900

 

2,900

Kcal ME/kg diet *

14.5

16,000

14.5

Protein  (%)

0.68

750

0.68

Arginine  (%)

0.50

550

0.50

Glycine and serin  (%)

0.16

180

0.16

Histidine  (%)

0.50

550

0.50

Isoleucine  (%)

0.73

800

0.73

Leucine  (%)

0.64

700

0.64

Lysine  (%)

0.55

600

0.55

Methionine + cystine  (%)

0.32

350

0.32

Methionine  (%)

0.80

880

0.80

Phenylalanine + tyrosine  (%)

0.40

440

0.40

Phenylalanine  (%)

0.45

500

0.45

Threonine  (%)

0.14

150

0.14

Tryptophan  (%)

0.55

600

0.55

Valine  (%)

1.00

1,100

1.00

Linoleic acid  (%)

3.40

3,750

3.40

Calcium  (%)

0.32

350

0.32

Phosphorus, available  (%)

0.15

165

0.15

Potassium  (%)

0.15

165

0.15

Sodium  (%)

0.15

165

0.15

Chlorine  (%)

500

55

500

Magnesium  (mg)

60

3.30

30

Manganese  (mg)

65

5.50

50

Zinc  (mg)

60

5.50

50

Iron  (mg)

8

0.88

6

Copper  (mg)

0.30

0.03

0.30

Iodine  (mg)

0.10

0.01

0.10

Selenium  (mg)

4,000

440

4,000

Vitamin A  (IU)

500

55

500

Vitamin D  (ICU)

10

0.55

5

Vitamin E  (IU)

0.50

0.055

0.50

Vitamine K  (mg)

3.80

0.242

2.20

Riboflavin  (mg)

10.0

0.242

2.20

Pantothenic acid  (mg)

10.0

0.10

10.0

Niacin  (mg)

0.004

0.00044

0.004

Vitamin B12  (mg)

?

?

?

Choline  (mg)

0.15

0.011

0.10

Biotin  (mg)

0.35

0.0275

0.25

Folacin  (mg)

0.80

0.088

0.80

Thiamin  (mg)

4.50

0.33

3.0

Pyridoxine  (mg)


* These are typical dietary energy concentrations.
** Assumes an average daily intake of 110 g of feed/hen daily.

Table 3. Body weights and feed requirements of leghorn-type pullets and hens.

Typical egg production

 ( hen-day %)

Feed consumption

 ( g/week ) **

Body weight

 (g) *

Age

 (weeks)

--

45

35

0

--

90

135

2

--

180

270

4

--

260

450

6

--

325

620

8

--

385

790

10

--

430

950

12

--

460

1,060

14

--

460

1,160

16

--

460

1,260

18

--

460

1,360

20

10

525

1,425

22

38

595

1,500

24

64

665

1,575

26

88

770

1,725

30

80

770

1,815

40

74

765

1,870

50

68

755

1,900

60

62

740

1,900

70


* Pullets and hens of Leghorn-type strains are generally fed ad libitum but are occasionally control-fed to limit body weights. Values shown are typical but will vary with strain differences, season and lighting. Specific breeder guidelines should be consulted for desired schedules of weights and feed consumption.
** Based on diets containing 2,900 ME kcal/kg, consumption will vary depending upon the caloric density of the diet, environ- mental temperature and rate of production.

 

 


Table 4. Nutrient requirements of broilers as percentages or as milligrams or units per kilogram of diet.

Weeks

6-8

Weeks

3-6

Weeks

0-3

Energy base kcal  

3,200

3,200

3,200

ME/kg diet *

18.0

20.0

23.0

Protein (%)

1.00

1.20

1.44

Arginine (%)

0.70

1.00

1.50

Glycine + Serine (%)

0.26

0.30

0.35

Histidine (%)

0.60

0.70

0.80

Isoleucine (%)

1.00

1.18

1.35

Leucine (%)

0.85

1.00

1.20

Lysine (%)

0.60

0.72

0.93

Methionine + Cystine (%)

0.32

0.38

0.50

Methionine (%)

1.00

1.17

1.34

Phenylalanine + Tyrosine (%)

0.54

0.63

0.72

Phenylalanine (%)

0.68

0.74

0.80

Threonine (%)

0.17

0.18

0.23

Tryptophan (%)

0.62

0.72

0.82

Valine (%)

1.00

1.00

1.00

Linoleic acid (%)

0.80

0.90

1.00

Calcium (%)

0.35

0.40

0.45

Phosphorus, available (%)

0.30

0.35

0.40

Potassium (%)

0.15

0.15

0.15

Sodium (%)

0.15

0.15

0.15

Chlorine (%)

600

600

600

Magnesium (mg)

60.0

60.0

60.0

Manganese (mg)

40.0

40.0

40.0

Zinc (mg)

80.0

80.0

80.0

Iron (mg)

8.0

8.0

8.0

Copper (mg)

0.35

0.35

0.35

Iodine (mg)

0.15

0.15

0.15

Selenium (mg)

1,500

1,500

1,500

Vitamin A (IU)

200

200

200

Vitamin D (ICU)

10

10

10

Vitamin E (IU)

0.50

0.50

0.50

Vitamin K (mg)

3.60

3.60

3.60

Riboflavin (mg)

10.0

10.0

10.0

Pantothenic acid (mg)

11.0

27.0

27.0

Niacin (mg)

0.003

0.009

0.009

Vitamin B12 (mg)

500

850

1,300

Choline (mg)

0.10

0.15

0.15

Biotin (mg)

0.25

0.55

0.55

Folacin (mg)

1.80

1.80

1.80

Thiamin (mg)

2.5

3.0

3.0

Pyridoxine (mg)

 

* These are typical dietary energy concentrations.

Table 5. Nutrient requirements of turkeys as percentages or as milligrams or units per kilogram of feed. (Table is split into two sections.)

Sex - Age (weeks)

M(12-16)F(11-14)

M(8-12)   F(8-11) 

M(4-8)   F(4-8) 

M(0-4)  F(0-4)

Energy base

3,100

3,000

2,900

2,800

kcal ME/kg diet *

19

22

26

28

Protein (%)

1.1

1.25

1.5

1.6

Arginine (%)

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

Glycine + serine (%)

0.39

0.46

0.54

0.58

Histidine (%)

0.75

0.85

1.0

1.1

Isoleucine (%)

1.3

1.5

1.75

1.9

Leucine (%)

1.0

1.3

1.5

1.6

Lysine (%)

0.65

0.75

0.9

1.05

Methionine + cystine (%)

0.33

0.38

0.45

0.53

Methionine (%)

1.2

1.4

1.65

1.8

Phenylalanine+tyrosine(%)

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

Phenylalanine (%)

0.68

0.79

0.93

1.0

Threonine (%)

0.18

0.2

0.24

0.26

Tryptophan (%)

0.8

0.94

1.1

1.2

Valine (%)

0.8

0.8

1.0

1.0

Linoleic acid (%)

0.75

0.85

1.0

1.2

Calcium (%)

0.38

0.42

0.5

0.6

Phosphorus,available (%)

0.5

0.5

0.6

0.7

Potassium (%)

0.12

0.12

0.15

0.17

Sodium (%)

0.12

0.14

0.14

0.15

Chlorine (%)

600

600

600

600

Magnesium (mg)

60

60

60

60

Manganese (mg)

40

50

65

75

Zinc (mg)

60

60

60

80

Iron (mg)

6

6

8

8

Copper (mg)

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.4

Iodine (mg)

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

Selenium (mg)

4,000

4,000

4,000

4,000

Vitamin A (IU)

900

900

900

900

Vitamin D (ICU) **

10

10

12

12

Vitamin E (IU)

0.8

0.8

1.0

1.0

Vitamin K (mg)

3.0

3.0

3.6

3.6

Riboflavin (mg)

9.0

9.0

11.0

11.0

Pantothenic acid (mg)

50.0

50.0

70.0

70.0

Niacin (mg)

0.003

0.003

0.003

0.003

Vitamin B12 (mg)

1,100

1,300

1,600

1,900

Choline (mg)

0.125

0.15

0.2

0.2

Biotin (mg)

0.8

0.8

1.0

1.0

Folacin (mg)

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

Thiamin (mg)

3.5

3.5

4.5

4.5

Pyridoxine (mg)

 

* These are typical ME concentrations for corn-soy diets. Different ME values may be appropriate if other ingredients predominate.
** These concentrations of vitamin D are satisfactory when the dietary concentrations of calcium and available phosphorus conform with those in this table.

Table 5. Nutrient requirements of turkeys as percentages or as milligrams or units per kilogram of feed. (Continued.)

Breeding

Sex – Age (weeks)

 

hens

Holding

M(20-24) F(17-20)

M(16-20) F(14-17)

Energy base

2,900

2,900

3,300

3,200

kcal ME/kg diet *

14

12

14

16.5

Protein (%)

0.6

0.6

0.8

0.95

Arginine (%)

0.5

0.4

0.5

0.6

Glycine + serine (%)

0.3

0.25

0.29

1.1

Histidine (%)

0.5

0.45

0.55

0.65

Isoleucine (%)

0.5

0.5

0.95

1.1

Leucine (%)

0.6

0.5

0.65

0.8

Lysine

0.4

0.4

0.45

0.55

Methionine + cystine (%)

0.2

0.2

0.23

0.28

Methionine (%)

1.0

0.8

0.9

1.05

Phenylalanine + tyrosine (%)

0.55

0.4

0.5

0.6

Phenylalanine (%)

0.45

0.4

0.5

0.59

Threonine (%)

0.13

0.1

0.13

0.15

Tryptophan (%)

0.58

0.5

0.6

0.7

Valine (%)

1.0

0.8

0.8

0.8

Linoleic acid (%)

2.25

0.5

0.55

0.65

Calcium (%)

0.35

0.25

0.28

0.32

Phosphorus,available (%)

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.4

Potassium (%)

0.15

0.12

0.12

0.12

Sodium (%)

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

Chlorine (%)

600

600

600

600

Magnesium (mg)

60

60

60

60

Manganese (mg)

65

40

40

40

Zinc (mg)

60

50

50

50

Iron (mg)

8

6

6

6

Copper (mg)

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.4

Iodine (mg)

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

Selenium (mg)

4,000

4,000

4,000

4,000

Vitamin A (IU)

900

900

900

900

Vitamin D (ICU) **

25

10

10

10

Vitamin E (IU)

1.0

0.8

0.8

0.8

Vitamin K (mg)

4.0

2.5

2.5

2.5

Riboflavin (mg)

16.0

9.0

9.0

9.0

Pantothenic acid (mg)

30.0

40.0

40.0

40.0

Niacin (mg)

0.003

0.003

0.003

0.003

Vitamin B12 (mg)

1.000

800

800

950

Choline (mg)

0.15

0.100

0.100

0.100

Biotin (mg)

1.0

0.7

0.7

0.7

Folacin (mg)

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

Thiamin (mg)

4.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

Pyridoxine (mg)

 

* These are typical ME concentrations for corn-soy diets. Different ME values may be appropriate if other ingredients predominate.
** These concentrations of vitamin D are satisfactory when the dietary concentrations of calcium and available phosphorus conform with those in this table.

Table 6. Growth rate, feed and energy consumption of large-type turkeys. (Table is split into two sections.)

Cumulative feed

Weekly feed

Age (weeks)

Consumption (kg)

Consumption (kg)

Body weight (kg)

F

M

F

M

F

M

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.10

0.11

0.11

1

0.27

0.30

0.17

0.20

0.24

0.27

2

0.66

0.75

0.39

0.45

0.47

0.58

3

1.12

1.36

0.46

0.61

0.70

1.0

4

1.72

2.06

0.60

0.70

1.1

1.5

5

2.48

2.92

0.76

0.86

1.6

2.0

6

3.37

4.00

0.89

1.08

2.1

2.6

7

4.41

5.30

1.04

1.30

2.6

3.3

8

5.59

6.81

1.18

1.51

3.1

4.0

9

6.93

8.59

1.34

1.78

3.7

4.7

10

8.40

10.58

1.47

1.99

4.3

5.5

11

9.99

12.83

1.59

2.25

4.8

6.3

12

11.69

15.34

1.70

2.51

5.3

7.1

13

13.44

18.00

1.75

2.66

5.8

8.0

14

15.26

20.89

1.82

2.89

6.3

8.8

15

17.18

23.94

1.92

3.05

6.7

9.7

16

19.21

27.03

2.03

3.13

7.1

10.5

17

21.28

30.34

2.07

3.27

7.5

11.3

18

23.43

33.77

2.15

3.43

7.8

12.1

19

25.66

37.37

2.23

3.60

8.1

12.8

20

--

41.08

--

3.71

--

13.5

21

--

44.90

--

3.82

--

14.2

22

--

48.84

--

3.94

--

14.8

23

--

52.89

--

4.05

--

15.4

24


Table 6. Growth rate, feed and energy consumption of large-type turkeys. (Continued.)

ME consumption

Per week (Mcal)

Body weight (kg)

Age

(weeks)

F

M

F

M

0.30

0.30

0.11

0.11

1

0.50

0.60

0.24

0.27

2

0.80

1.1

0.47

0.58

3

1.2

1.7

0.70

1.0

4

1.6

2.3

1.1

1.5

5

2.1

2.9

1.6

2.0

6

2.6

3.5

2.1

2.6

7

3.1

4.1

2.6

3.3

8

3.6

4.8

3.1

4.0

9

4.1

5.2

3.7

4.7

10

4.6

5.7

4.3

5.5

11

5.1

6.3

4.8

6.3

12

5.5

7.1

5.3

7.1

13

5.8

7.8

5.8

8.0

14

6.1

8.4

6.3

8.8

15

6.4

8.8

6.7

9.7

16

6.7

9.6

7.1

10.5

17

6.9

10.2

7.5

11.3

18

7.1

10.9

7.8

12.1

19

7.3

11.6

8.1

12.8

20

--

12.5

--

13.5

21

--

12.9

--

14.2

22

--

13.2

--

14.8

23

--

13.5

--

15.4

24



 

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